"A Centre of Excellence for Pig Development"

Research

The PIB undertakes research in the fields of nutrition, breeding and production. The research is mainly applied and is aimed at finding solutions to the problems that Zimbabwean pig producers will be facing. Due to resource constraints most of the research is done in collaboration with other research institutions and companies in Zimbabwe. Two research projects were done in collaboration with the University of Zimbabwe from 2013 to 2014. One of the studies involved assessing the meat consumption patterns in urban and rural Zimbabwe. The other study was on mitigating the occurrence and the effects of undersized piglets in a litter.

In 2019, two papers were published at the Research Council of Zimbabwe. The first paper evaluated the dietary inclusion of moringa leaf meal on the performance of piglets. Adding the meal extract improved the growth rate of piglets. The second one focused on using cowpea meal as a soya bean meal substitution. Results and papers are available on the following link;

http://rcz.ac.zw/docc/12th%20ZIRS%20Book%20of%20Papers%20Presented.pdf

In 2021 one paper was published in the journal of Tropical Animal health and production titled Efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica) aqueous fruit extracts against Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis in grower pigs.

Abstract

The acaricidal activity of Azadirachta indica (neem) aqueous fruit extracts was evaluated against Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis (mange mites) in an on-farm trial using grower pigs. Aqueous neem fruit extracts of three concentrations 5%, 10%, and 25% w/v and a commercial acaricide, 12.5% amitraz-based Triatix spray (positive control), were compared with pigs that received no treatment (negative control). Thirty grower pigs of the Dalland breed were allocated to the five treatments in a completely randomized experiment. Each experimental animal was sprayed on day 0 and again on day 7. Counts of mange mites, scoring of lesion index, and calculation of rubbing index were done weekly. Topical application of 25% aqueous neem fruit extract had a higher efficacy ratio (p < 0.05) than the other fruit extract concentrations, and performed similarly to an amitraz-based acaricide, suggesting a dose-dependent response. Amitraz (positive control) cured clinical mange on grower pigs after 5 weeks and 25% aqueous neem fruit extract 6 weeks post-treatment. The results indicated that aqueous neem fruit extracts have acaricidal effects against mange mites and can provide a cheaper, safer, and more eco-friendly alternative for the control of Sarcoptes mange in pigs.

The paper is available on the following link;

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11250-020-02545-7

2016 Research

 

1.     The comparison of conventional composting method versus vermicomposting on quality of the compost

Tekedza Trevor Tinashe1, Shoniwa Andrew Chamunorwa1, Takaindisa Erica1 Imbayarwo-Chikosi Venancio. E2

1 Pig Industry Board of Zimbabwe, PO Box HG 297, Highlands, Harare/ Zimbabwe

2Department of Animal Science/ University of Zimbabwe, P.O Box Mp 167 Mt Pleasant, Zimbabwe

Abstract

To assess the effect of the type of basal fertilizer on maize yield, four treatments, Treatment A being worms introduced at 24 days, Treatment B had worms introduced at 48 days, Treatment C was conventional composting and Treatment D was Compound D fertilizer were applied to a very short season maize variety (SC301) on four equal blocks. The maize was planted the second week of January with an in-row and inter-row spacing of 20cm x 90cm respectively, thus a plant population of approximately 200 plants per line. Each plant in the manure treatment received 30g of manure per station as composition from the manure was similar. Results showed that treatment affected maize yield. Inorganic basal fertilizer application out performed all manure treatments. The total variable costs however were highest for inorganic basal fertilizer application when compared to other treatments but the cost of producing a tonne of maize was cheaper for the same treatment. It is recommended to increase manure application rates as an attempt to improve yields from manure treatments

 

2.     Evaluation of various processing methods on cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) used as a protein source for feeding growing finishing pigs

Tekedza Trevor Tinashe1, Halimani Tinyiko Edward2, Shoniwa Andrew Chamunorwa1, Takaindisa Erica1, Imbayarwo-Chikosi Venancio. E2

1 Pig Industry Board of Zimbabwe, PBag H.G 297, Highlands, Harare, Zimbabwe

2University of Zimbabwe, Department of Animal Science, P.O Box Mp 167Mt Pleasant, Zimbabwe

Abstract:
An experiment was carried out to determine the growth performance of pigs fed rations with cow-peas subjected to various processing techniques. Forty crossbred pigs at five weeks of age were used in randomized complete block design. Blocking was on breed (Large White, Landrace and Duroc crosses) and sex class (barrows and gilts) with five treatments presented as a 3 x 2 x 5 factorial experiment with four replicates.  Forty pigs were randomly allotted to five treatment groups : germinated  cowpeas (A); cowpeas soaked in 0.03% sodium bicarbonate then boiled for two hours (B); cowpeas soaked in 0.03% sodium bicarbonate  for 16 hours (C); raw cowpeas (D) and the soya bean meal based diet (E). Pigs were fed for nine weeks. Pigs on diets with soaked and boiled cow-peas had significantly (P<0.05)   higher live weight gains (LWG) than those on the other treatment groups. Feed intake was higher among growers fed diets with soaked cowpeas.  Pigs on the diet with unprocessed cow peas had the lowest feed intake and live weight gain. There were no significant differences in feed conversion ratio (FCR) among the treatment groups (P>0.05). In terms of cost per live-weight gain, soya bean meal based diet was cheapest. It is recommended that  smallholder farmers that have challenges accessing soya bean meal but have access to cowpeas to use boiled instead of raw cowpeas in their pig diets to enhance production.

3.     Maggot meal (Musca domestica) as a dietary protein source for growing piglets

Mabuyawa S.N , Kagande S M and Tekedza T

Abstract

Ninety five 2 weeks old piglets weighing between 1.2kg- 3.6kg were distributed to nine sows (2nd to 7th parity). The piglets were allocated to three iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic dietary treatments in a Randomised Complete Block Design. The treatments were as follows, control diet with 0% maggot meal, 25% and 50% maggot meal.  The diets were fed to the piglets for three weeks so as to evaluate the effect of different inclusion levels of maggot meal on the live weight gain of the piglets at weaning age. The experiment showed a highest live weight gain of 4.8kg in the treatment which had 50% maggot meal inclusion and the lowest live weight gain of 0.5kg in the treatment which had 0% maggot meal although the diets had no effect (P > 0.05) on the live weight gain of the piglets. However the difference in the breed combination of the piglets had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the live weight gain of the piglets. It can be concluded from the study that there can be partial substitution of soya bean meal with Musca domestica maggot meal in creep feed to as much as 50% inclusion level with no negative effect on the live weight gain of the piglets.

4.     Comparison of pig breed reproductive and growth performance in Zimbabwe, case study of PIB Commercial Farm, Arcturus

Venancio E.Imbayarwo-Chikosi1, Panashe R.G Bhumure 1.2, Tinyiko E.Halimani1, Trevor T.Tekedza2

1Department of Animal Science, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box
tMP 167, Mt Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe

2Pig Industry Board of Zimbabwe, PO Box HG 297, Highlands, Harare, Zimbabwe

Corresponding author: vichikosi@gmail.com

Abstract

 

The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of crossbreeding on fertility parameters in pig herd in comparison to the fertility parameters of the pure breeds. Secondary data was collected at the Pig Industry Board located in Arcturus. The data included records of boar and sow ID, boar and sow breeds, dates of farrowing, dates of weaning, dates of services, litter size, post weaning mortality, average birth weights, total birth weights, total weaning weights and average weaning weights on pure breeds, two breed crosses and three breed crosses. There were 4 breeds present which are Landrace, Dallard, Duroc and Large White. A statistical analysis was carried out to identify the best combination of breeds that produced the most ideal or best genetically improved offspring. The effects varied with the fertility parameter that was being analysed independently and a direct correlation between average birth weight and post weaning weight was observed. There were no significant differences in some parameters between the Landrace and Large white breeds whereas there were differences in others like weaning weight and post weaning mortality. The non-parametric variables had significant differences as compared to the other parameters analysed. In the end the analysis showed that high crossbred animals had an improved hybrid vigour as compared to the pure breeds having the 3 breed cross having the best results as compared to the other breed types. Improving the pig herds can be achieved by practicing proper crossbreeding with the crossbreeds that include Dalland and Landrace as they bring about a greater percentage of hybrid vigour.

Keywords: Heterosis, genetic, fertility parameters, crossbreeding.

2017

5.     Developing an integrated Pig-Fish Farming system at Pig Industry Board (Jan- December 2017)

The proposal was developed but there was no funding for the project

6.     Cassava trial –

done but we lost the results after the assigned student failed to collect the data. But The cassava meal was tested and had a CP of 2.6% which meant that a lot of soya meal was used to compensate the low CP.

7.     A Comparison of a typical five phase pig feeding regime and a new proposed two phase regime formulated on new CVB Matrices incorporating Axtra Phy (Phytase @1000FTU) and Rovabio advanced P(Enzyme cocktail) for improved nutrient digestibility and energy supplementation in system.

Tekedza Trevor Tinashe1, Shoniwa Andrew Chamunorwa1, Takaindisa Erica1and  Vimbai Makombe2

1 Pig Industry Board of Zimbabwe, PO Box HG 297, Highlands, Harare/ Zimbabwe
2 National foods ltd, Zimbabwe

Abstract

A study was carried out to compare the performance of growing finishing pigs on a five-phase feeding regime (Diet A) against a proposed new two-phase feeding regime (Diet B) which incorporated enzymes. The five-phase feeding regime consisted of a creep (21% Crude Protein/CP), weaner I (20% CP), weaner II (18%CP), grower (16%CP) and finisher (15% CP) diets. The two-phase diet consisted of a creep /weaner (18% CP) and a grower/ finisher (15% CP) diet. The new diets in the 2 phase feeding regime were developed using an enzymes designed to improve feed utilization and reduce the cost of the feed. A total of 64 Large White, Landrace and Duroc crosses were used in the trial. Each treatment had 16 replications, each experimental unit consisted of two animals. Water and feed were provided ad libitum. Pigs were raised and slaughtered at 21weeks. Weights were taken at the beginning of the trial, at creep feed introduction (two weeks), at weaning (five weeks) and at 8 weeks when they were promoted to the grower phase.  After that pigs were weighed on a fortnightly basis until they reached 21 weeks.  The feed intake was calculated and recorded at the same time the pigs were weighed. At slaughter, carcass backfat depth over the last rib, 6.5 cm ventral to the dorsal midline (P-2 site), loin depth and carcass weight were recorded. The results showed no effect of the diet (p>0.05) on the overall growth rate, feed conversion ratio (FCR), total feed intake, total weight gain, hot mass, cold dresses mass and P2 performance of the pigs. The similarity in terms of the performance despite the differences in the nutritional composition can be explained by the addition of the enzymes in the feed for Diet B. The five-phase feeding costs more than the two-phase because of the CP content although growth is similar. Reducing the CP greatly reduces the cost of the diet. In addition, a five-phase regime presents five growth checks when the pigs are adjusting to the new diet when compared to the two phase regime which only has two growth checks. The addition of enzymes in the two-phase regime allows for the use of cheaper and inferior raw materials which allows the diets to be cheaper. It is recommended to feed pigs with diets that have enzymes added to lower the cost of producing a kg of pork.

8.     Relationships between litter size, sex ratio and within-litter birth weight variation in a sow herd and consequences on performance at weaning.

Titus Jairus Zindove, PhD; Tonderai Mutibvu, PhD; Andrew Chamunorwa Shonhiwa; Erica Lilian Takaendesa

Sex ratio in pig production can be manipulated to yield greater economic returns. The objectives of the study were to assess the variability of sex ratio in pig litters and to determine the relationship between sex ratio and litter performance at birth and weaning. A total of 3 465 piglets from 325 litter records obtained from 1997 until 2006 at the Pig Industry board (PIB), Arcturus, Zimbabwe, were used. The PROC REG was used to determine the relationships between number born alive (NBA) and litter performance traits and the relationship between sex ratio and the litter performance. Relationships between sex ratio and within litter birth weight variation (CVBWT) and within-litter weight coefficient of variation (CVWWT) were plotted using Proc Gplot. An ordinal logistic regression (PROC LOGISTIC) was used to estimate the probability of a piglet having within litter minimum birth weight (MinBWT), within litter maximum birth weight (MaxBWT), within litter minimum weaning weight (MinWWT) or within litter maximum weaning weight (MaxWWT) (SAS, 2008). The NBA had no relationship with sex ratio (P > 0.05). Male piglets were 6 times more likely to be the heaviest in a litter whilst female piglets were 4 times more likely to be the lightest. Female piglets were 33 times more likely to be the heaviest and lightest within their litters at weaning (P < 0.05). As the sex ratio increased, the MinBWT increased linearly (P < 0.05). As the sex ratio increased, percent survival of piglets at weaning (SVW) also increased linearly (P > 0.05). The CVBWT and CVWWT increased quadratically as sex ratio increased (P < 0.05). As the proportion of males in litters increased, CVBWT and CVWWT generally increased reaching maximum as the proportion of males in litters approached 0.5 and then increased from there onwards. As the proportion of males in litters approached 1, CVBWT and CVWWT reached their least values. Within litter weight variation is largest in litters with equal number of male and female piglets and lowest in unisex litters.

2018

9.     Breed complementarity in productivity traits of Dalland with Large White, and Landrace F1 pig genotypes

 

1Tada O, 2Makuzva D, and 3Tekedza T. T

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Animal Production, University of Limpopo – Turfloop Campus, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727, RSA

2Department of Animal Production and Technology, Chinhoyi University of Technology, Private Bag 7724, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe

3Pig Industry Board of Zimbabwe, Arcturus station, Private Bag HG 297 Highlands, Harare, Zimbabwe

1Corresponding author: oberttada@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

The study investigated breed complementarity of Dalland (D) with Large White (LW), Landrace (LR) and LRxLW crosses on traits of economic importance in pig production. Data for 1109 pigs from five mating systems (DxD, DxLW, DxLR, DxLR/LW, LWxLW) was collected 2012 to 2015. The F1 generation growth parameters (birth weight, weaning weight and average daily gain), and survivability characters (litter size and number weaned) were evaluated. The data was analyzed using the Mixed Model procedures with Minitab 18.1 software. The sire line of Dalland breed crossed with Landrace breed produced significant higher growth parameters (p<0.05). The birth weight, weaning weight and average daily gain between birth and weaning observed were 1.51±0.032kg, 10.4±0.437kg and 0.25±0.012kg/day respectively (this are overall means or means for Dx LR??). The DxLR cross had significantly low pre-weaning survival rate of 8.08±0.184 piglets weaned per litter. DxD had the largest litter size of 11.67±0.107 piglets. After adjusting for the fixed effects of season of birth, year of birth, dam parity and sex, significant correlations were observed between litter size and birth weight (r = -0.11), litter size and number weaned (r = 0.68), birth weight and number weaned (r = 0.07) and on birth weight and average daily gain (r = 0.15). DxLR F1 cross excelled significantly on growth characteristics and thus high breed complementarity. DxLR\LW performed higher on survival traits giving a conclusion that crossbreeding can increase performance of some lowly heritable traits. It is recommended to adjust for environmental and animals factors in evaluating productivity performance of complimentary breeds.

10.  EFFECT OF MATING  STRATEGY  ON  PRE-WEANING SURVIVAL AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF PIG BREEDS IN A TYPICAL PIG COMMERCIAL HERD IN ZIMBABWE

                                                                                                

Tada O1, Rukoni T2, and Tekedza T. T3

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Animal Production, University of Limpopo – Turfloop Campus, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727, RSA

2Department of Animal Production and Technology, Chinhoyi University of Technology, Private Bag 7724, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe

3Pig Industry Board of Zimbabwe, Arcturus station, Private Bag HG 297 Highlands, Harare, Zimbabwe

1Corresponding author: oberttada@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

The effect of ten mating strategies and breed proportions on pre-weaning progeny survival and growth performance was studied using 1 473 records collected between 2012 and 2015 at the Pig Industry Board of Zimbabwe (PIB). Best linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) of SPSS Version 21 procedure was used to compute means and variance of the effect of mating strategy and breed proportion on pre-weaning progeny survival and grow performance of pig breeds. From the results, both the mating strategy and the breed proportion had significant effects (P<0.05) on number born alive (NBA), birth weight (BW), number weaned (NW), weaning weight (WW) and average daily gain (ADG). Piglets from the pure Dalland breed had the highest birth weight whilst those from the pure Large White produced the lightest weight at birth. Dalland x Landrace piglets had both the highest weaning weights and average daily gain. Piglets from Dalland x Landrace parents had the highest survival rate, NBA and NW. Season of birth affected (P<0.05) NBA, BW and NW. However, the season of birth had no effect (P>0.05) on weaning weight and average daily gain. Parity and birth year had significant effects (P<0.05) on number born alive, birth weight, number weaned, weaning weight and average daily gain. It is therefore recommended to mate Dalland x Landrace breeds such that the growth performance of the offsprings is enhanced since it has high heritability. In terms of survival, it is recommended to have an analysis on the causes of the mortality if the issue is to be managed.

Project proposal

11.  The effect of early weaning and providing an optimal environment for piglets on preweaning survival, growth rate and on sow performance –

By Tekedza T

The purpose of the study was to develop an artificial environment that provides the necessities of the piglets with the overall goal of increasing output from the same number of sows. This is particularly important because there are prevailing good litter sizes (11-14 piglets) being achieved by farmers and mechanisms to reduce mortality are not being effective.

The study was discouraged by some advisors and could not be done.

Neem tree trial – was conducted in 2018 and then published in 2021.( Tropical Animal Health and Production (2021) 53: 135)

12.  Efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica) aqueous fruit extracts against Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis in grower pigs

Calvin Ngonidzashe Pasipanodya1 & Trevor Tinashe Tekedza2 & Fungayi Primrose Chatiza1 & Eddington Gororo1

The acaricidal activity of Azadirachta indica (neem) aqueous fruit extracts was evaluated against Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis (mange mites) in an on-farm trial using grower pigs. Aqueous neem fruit extracts of three concentrations 5%, 10%, and 25% w/v and a commercial acaricide, 12.5% amitraz-based Triatix spray (positive control), were compared with pigs that received no treatment (negative control). Thirty grower pigs of the Dalland breed were allocated to the five treatments in a completely randomized experiment. Each experimental animal was sprayed on day 0 and again on day 7. Counts of mange mites, scoring of lesion index, and calculation of rubbing index were done weekly. Topical application of 25% aqueous neem fruit extract had a higher efficacy ratio (p < 0.05) than the other fruit extract concentrations, and performed similarly to an amitraz-based acaricide, suggesting a dose-dependent response. Amitraz (positive control) cured clinical mange on grower pigs after 5 weeks and 25% aqueous neem fruit extract 6 weeks post-treatment. The results indicated that aqueous neem fruit extracts have acaricidal effects against mange mites and can provide a cheaper, safer, and more eco-friendly alternative for the control of Sarcoptes mange in pigs.

 

13.  Biological evaluation of pig feed from Capital Foods

T T Tekedza PIB

The broad objective of the trial was to evaluate the performance of weaner and growing finishing pigs fed Capital Foods based diets. The first stage of the trial involved feeding the creep diet to piglets during the lactation period. A total of 24 litters were used during the lactation period. Litters with 8-12 piglets per litter after fostering were selected for the trial. Litters from the Dalland x Duroc x Landrace x Large White crosses were used in this study in a Latin square design to counter the effects of breed across the litters. The PIB creep diet was used as the control diet during the lactation period. Creep feeding commenced at day 14 on a little and often basis. The piglets were weighed at the start of creep feeding and at weaning. The amount of creep feed consumed was recorded. The litter was used as the experimental unit.

The second phase involved feeding the weaner diet during the post weaning period. A total of 200 weaners were used during the post weaning period. The weaners were housed in groups of 10 according to weight and sex. There were two treatments and 10 replications per treatment and the pen was the experimental unit. The weaners were cross fostered such that, each breed had equal presentation across the two treatments. The weaners were on an ad-libitum feeding system and they fed on the weaner diet for three weeks. One group of weaners was fed the PIB weaner diet and the other the Capital Foods weaner diet. Feed consumption was calculated from the feed issued minus the residue when the pigs were promoted to the grower feed.

The third phase involved feeding grower and finisher diets to growing finishing pigs. A total of 96 eight week old pigs were allocated to three dietary treatments during the growing finishing period. The pigs were placed in groups of four according to weight and sex. There were eight replications per treatment. The replicates had the same initial weight i.e. 60±8kg at eight weeks of age. The pen was the experimental unit. Pigs on Treatment 1 were fed the PIB grower diet from 8 weeks to 16 weeks and thereafter they were fed the PIB finisher diet until slaughter at 147±10 days and this was the control diet. Pigs on Treatment 2 were fed the Capital Foods grower finisher diet from 8 weeks until slaughter at 147±10 days. Treatment 3 pigs were fed the Capital Foods grower diet from 8 weeks to 16 weeks and thereafter they were fed the Capital Foods finisher diet until slaughter at 147±10 days. A total of 64 growing finishing pigs were fed diets from Capital Foods. The experimental animals were on an ad-libitum feeding system. The pigs were weighed fortnightly and their feed intakes recorded. The breed effect was eliminated by using a Latin Square design that ensured that each breed had equal presentation across all treatments. Incidences of diseases and the treatments administered were recorded. Similarly mortality was recorded. Data was analyzed using 1 way ANOVA in Prism 5 Statistical package and where significant differences were noted the comparisons of means for the different treatments was done using Tukey’s Multiple Comparison Test. From the Data analysis, the diet had no effect (P > 0.05) on the overall growth rate, feed conversion ratio (FCR), total feed intake (TFI), total weight gain (TWG), hot dressed mass (HDM), cold dressed mass (CDM), average daily gain (ADG) and Final weight (FW) of the pigs. The lower average daily gain for Diet 3 in comparison with the other diets is explained by the fact that the animals were slaughtered at 147±10 days and this presents a 20 day difference. The majority of the pigs in diets one and two were fattened over lesser days than those from diet three. There was a delay in slaughter for some of the trial animals when the market prices dropped and other abattoirs were selling pork at unviable prices

14.  Effect of feeding small grains to grower pigs on growth and economic performance

Tekedza  T. T. and Shoniwa A.C – Pig Industry Board

Abstract

A continued depressed pork producer price combined with an increase in feed prices has negatively impacted the profitability of pig producers in most parts of the developing world. Worsened by the recurring droughts experienced in Sub-Saharan Africa, the cost of maize as the energy source for pig diets becomes unviable to most producers. This necessitates that for the pig industry to remain viable, development of feeding strategies based on low-cost feedstuffs which are locally available to smallholder farmers remain indispensable (Nelson et al. 2007; Donkoh and Zanu 2010). Both red and white sorghum are drought tolerant which make them worth exploring as alternative energy sources. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of growing pigs fed on four energy sources but with the same protein and energy composition. Four treatment diets were used for this research: 100% maize, 100% white sorghum, 100% red sorghum and 100% millet. The research was conducted over a 13-week period with forty pigs allocated randomly to the four treatment diets. The experiment was replicated five times in a completely randomized design and each replication unit consisted of two animals. Pig weights and feed intake were measured at the commencement of the trial and after every two weeks. The feed intake was calculated and recorded at the same time the pigs were weighed. At slaughter, carcass backfat depth over the last rib, 6.5 cm ventral to the dorsal midline (P-2 site), loin depth and carcass weight were recorded. The results showed no effect of the diets (p>0.05) on the overall growth rate, feed conversion ratio (FCR), total feed intake, total weight gain, hot mass, cold dresses mass and P2 of the pigs fed sorghum, millet and maize. The similarity in terms of the performance is because the formulated diets had the same nutritional composition which is adequate to provide enough nutrients required by the pigs from 8-13 weeks of age. In terms of cost, the sorghum and millet diets were a bit cheaper than the maize based diets due to their crude protein content which is above 13% whereas that of maize was just above 8%. Sorghum, millet and maize are sold at the same price at GMB. Hence, it is recommended to use either of the energy sources under investigation available for feeding pigs.

2019

15.  Meat quality and performance of pigs fed dried brewer’s yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae) based diets

By Majoni A and Tekedza T

ABSTRACT

The effects of replacing soya bean meal with dried brewer’s yeast in growing and finishing pig diets has been investigated by conducting a 10 week feeding trial. Forty-eight growing pigs of the Duroc, Large White and Dalland breeds with an average initial weight of 16 ± 4kg were randomly allotted to one of the following dietary treatments with; 0, 25, 50 and 75% dried brewer’s yeast. The diets were formulated to be iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous. Each dietary treatment had two pigs per pen replicated six times. Data collected included that of growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and economic-return of the pigs fed dried brewer’s yeast as a soya bean meal substitute which was then compared against the control diet. Treatment diets were found to have no significant effects (P > 0.05) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of the pigs. The cost of feed reduced with increase in the levels of dried brewer’s yeast while the net profit increased. It is therefore concluded that, replacing soya bean meal with dried brewer’s yeast up to 75% in pig diets encourages good animal performance at least cost of production. It is recommended to find a more efficient mechanism of drying the yeast for easy uptake in the pig industry.

16.  PIB collaboration with Cooper’s Animal Health

Title: Biological evaluation of flavophospholipol (flaveco) as a feed additive in piglet and weaner diets

By T. T Tekedza and Shoniwa A. C.

Pig Industry Board of Zimbabwe, P Bag H.G 297, Highlands, Harare, Zimbabwe

 

Abstract

An experiment was conducted for the biological evaluation of Flaveco based diets fed to piglets and weaners from 21 days to 56 days. One hundred and sixty six piglets in 16 litters were randomly allocated to two treatments diets and replicated eight times. Treatment one was straight feed purchased from a reputable commercial feed supplier that does not buy Flaveco from the sole manufacturer and distributor of the additive. Treatment two contained the same feed from the same batch but had Flaveco added in recommended amounts. The blocking factors were breed and parity. Data collected was on growth rate and feed intake. A T-test was used to analyse the average daily gain (ADG), Total feed intake (TFI), Daily feed intake (DFI), Feed conversion Ratio (FCR) and Weaning Weight (WW). There was no effect (p > 0.05) of adding Flaveco to straight feed on growth parameters and feed intake. In light of the results of this study and given that the inclusion of Flaveco adds to the cost of the feed there is no justification in adding it to straight feeds sourced from one of the stock feed companies in Zimbabwe.

17.  PIB Collaboration with Vamara Trial

Prepared by T. T Tekedza

Title: Biological evaluation of pig feed from Vamara Group

Pig feeds in Zimbabwe are mostly sold on the basis of their nutritional composition. Accurate information on the quantities needed and the related cost to feed a pig to market weight is normally not available. Biological evaluation of feed involves assessing the nutritive value of the feed by feeding animals under experimental conditions to get accurate information on animal performance, the quantities fed and the related cost. The information that is obtained after biological evaluation helps in the marketing of the feed. The evaluation can also help to point out improvements needed in the formulation of the feed. Feed accounts for 75-80% of the production costs on a piggery. Accurate information on the feed cost per unit of gain will help the farmer to make informed decisions. Farmers need to base their decision to buy their pig feed on what the feed can achieve and not its price. Given the low margins in the pig industry farmers require feeds that achieve high growth rates at the lowest cost. Most pig feed manufacturers in Zimbabwe are not providing enough information in their brochures on the expected performance from their feeds thereby making it difficult for farmers to make informed decisions regarding the feeds.  The broad objective of this trial is to evaluate the performance of growing finishing pigs fed Vamara based diets.

18.  Influence of handling and management practices on pig welfare in large scale commercial farms –

The purpose wass to evaluate farmer perceptions on animal welfare and management practices employed by handlers.

2020

19.  Title:  Biological evaluation of anolyte on piglet performance

By Tekedza T T and Tsamba J

Water in piggery units can never be completely free from bacteria, which is why there is a maximum permissible bacterial count of 100,000 bacteria/ml. The addition of disinfectants to water has been successful in in maintaining low levels of contamination. It therefore seems appropriate to conduct a biological evaluation concerning the potential role of anolyte in current pig production, analysing the dimension of proven effects and providing scientific background to its use. This trial therefore seeks to measure the impact of the inclusion of anolyte in creep diets with the hope of establishing a cost benefit analysis. Furthermore, an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats will be performed in order to assess the prospective role of anolyte in the near future. A total of 83 piglets in eight litters were used in the trial with three treatments replicated eight times. The treatments were as follows; Treatment 1 – piglets were given anolyte, Treatment 2 – piglets were given stress pack, Treatment 3 – piglets were given water only (placebo). All piglets in the trial were subjected to same handling which usually stresses the piglets. The piglets were located in the same pen to normalise on fixed factors (parity, breed, date of birth and other environmental factors). The piglets receiving anolyte were marked with a red animal marker, water only were marked with a green animal marker and those on stress pack were marked with a blue animal marker to clearly distinguish them. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomised design. The treatment solutions were introduced at birth and provided up to weaning. Each piglet was given 10ml of the treatment solution in the first week, then 20ml the second week, being increased to 30ml in the third, fourth and 5th week four times per day. Antibiotics were not used for the piglets in receiving anolyte in this study. The litter was the experimental unit and each litter had nine to twelve piglets. Creep feed was available ad lib from two weeks up to weaning on a little but frequent basis.  Data on growth, mortalities and disease occurrence was analysed using the General Linear Model (GLM) of SPSS (2017). The least significant difference (LSD) method was used to separate the means were p < 0.05. Were means where statistically significant, the separation of means was done using LSD method. The General Linear model of the SPSS software was conducted to evaluate the null hypothesis that there was no difference of treatment on weaning weight, weight gain and frequency of scouring on piglets. Treatment significantly affected p < 0.05 weight gain. The weaning weights of pigs on the stresspack treatment were the least from the trail whilst those on the anolyte treatment were the highest. However, the placebo treatment performed similarly to the anolyte treatment. In terms of weight gain, means for groups in homogeneous subsets illustrated the difference in performance for placebo vs stresspack treatment groups whilst that of the placebo was common in both subsets. Frequency of scouring was higher for piglets receiving stresspack and least for those on the anolyte treatment whilst for the placebo group it was moderate. On the other hand, sex had no effect p > 0.05 on weaning weight, frequency of scouring and weight gain. In addition, weight gain was not affected by neither the treatment nor sex. Post hoc testing (LSD) revealed significant differences in weight gain (p=0.023) between anolyte and stresspack treatments whilst that between anolyte and the placebo was statistically similar.

20.  The effect of different environments on the decomposition of pig carcasses and their colonisation by insects.

Mapindu M. and Tekedza T

Abstract

Forensic entomology involves the use of information about insects and other arthropods to interpret evidence in legal cases involving humans and animals. The objective of this study was to determine if the environment in which the carrion is discovered, influences the decomposition process, the colonisation and the activity of insects on the carrion. Six piglets weighing between 10 and 12kgs were euthanised and placed in three environments under study; first an open grassland which served as the terrestrial environment, a wooden cabin that served as the indoors environment and a pond, the aquatic environment. Sampling was done daily involving photographic documentation of the carcasses and collection of insects on them, paying particular attention to decomposition stage and entomological phase of succession. The dipteran species Lucilia sericata, Lucilia cuprina, Calliphora croceipalpis, Chrysomya marginalis, Chrysomya inclinata, Chrysomya megacephala and Musca domestica as well the coleopteran species Necrobia rufipes and Dermestes maculatus frequented and colonised carrion in all environments, it was recommended that these species be regarded as species of forensic importance in Zimbabwe. The Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index showed 2.34, 2.31 and 1.81 in the indoors, open terrestrial and aquatic environments respectively. With respect to the ANOVA computations, the results showed that there were significant differences in the duration of the stages of decomposition [F= 7.28; Fcrit = 3.07; df = (2; 117); P= 0.001]. The durations of the stages of decomposition were; 1 day for the fresh stage in all three environments; bloated stage 1, 2 and 4 days in the open terrestrial, indoors and aquatic environments respectively; active decay stage lasted 3, 7 and 14 days in the open terrestrial, indoors and aquatic environments respectively whilst the post decay stage lasted 5, 11 and 9 days in the open terrestrial, indoors and aquatic environments respectively and the remains stage lasted 30, 19 and 12 days in the open terrestrial, indoors and aquatic environments respectively. For the entomological phases of succession, there were no significant differences in the duration of each phase [F= 0.51; Fcrit = 3.07; df = (2; 117); P= 0.060]. The exposure, detection and acceptance phases lasted for less than a day in each environment. By comparison, the consumption phase took 14, 16 and 20 days in the open terrestrial, indoors and aquatic environments respectively whilst in the same order, the dispersal phase lasted 24, 22 and 18 days. In conclusion, species diversity was highest indoors and least in the aquatic environment as shown by the diversity indices of 2.34 and 1.8. It was also concluded that the environment influenced duration of the stages of decomposition although there were no significant differences in the duration of entomological phases of succession in different environments. This study therefore, generated baseline data for forensic entomology cases in Zimbabwe.

21.  Moringa trial – Accepted for publication in Taylor and Francis Journal in Dec 2021

THE EFFECT OF PARTIAL SUBSTITUTION OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAF MEAL ON THE RELATIVE GROWTH PERFOMANCE AND INCIDENCE OF SCOURS IN PIGLETS

Bright Chikasaa, Andrew Shoniwab, Clement Mangwiroa and Marshall Dhliwayoa, Trevor Tinashe Tekedzab #

a Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Environmental Science, Bindura University of Science Education, Private Bag 1020, Bindura, Zimbabwe.

 

b Pig Industry Board of Zimbabwe, P. Bag H.G. 297 Highlands, Harare, Zimbabwe

Abstract

The effect of Moringa oleifera life meal as a scour prophylaxis and on growth parameters of piglets was evaluated. A total of 168 piglets from 15 litters were used. The piglets were cross fostered and randomly assigned to three dietary treatments; 0% Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) as the control diet, 4.5% MOLM and 8% MOLM inclusion test diets. Each treatment was replicated five times. The feed conversion ratio (FCR), average daily gain (ADG), body weight (BW) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) and faecal viscosity (FV) were measured and recorded. The effect of MOLM inclusion level on FCR, ADG, BW, ADFI and FV was analysed using PROC GLM of SAS. Dietary inclusion of 4.5% MOLM significantly reduced the ADFI of piglets when compared to 0% MOLM, however 8% MOLM had higher ADFI than either 0% or 4.5% MOLM inclusion. There was no effect of MOLM dietary inclusion on ADG; however 8% MOLM dietary inclusion had a higher FCR when compared to 0% or 4.5 % MOLM. Piglets in control treatment (0% MOLM) had more incidence of scours than 8% MOLM diet and did not differ to 4.5% MOLM. There was no effect in faecal viscosity between 4.5 % and 8% MOLM diets. MOLM dietary inclusion significantly reduced the cost per kilogram weight gain. It was concluded that MOLM can replace soya bean meal up to 4.5% in piglet creep diets.

2021

22.  Evaluating the effect of Citric Acid in reducing incidence of scours in  pre-weaned piglets: A case study of Pig Industry Board, Acturus Station

Kudakwashe Mwakupuka Gombarume, Trevor Tinashe Tekedza, Ngonidzashe Gerald Mafere, Tonderai Mutibvu(4).

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of adding citric acid (CA) dissolved in drinking water on pre-weaned piglets’ growth performance as diarrhea prophylaxis. Piglets from 8 sows (different breeds) at day 6 of age obtained from the Pig Industry Board breeding and Commercial section were used in the experiment. Piglets were weighed, navel clipped and ear notched within their first 24 hours of life. Iron injection was administered at day 3 of age. At day six initial weights of selected piglets were recorded which were used to allocate each piglet to an experiment. The piglets were fed using ad-lib metal creep feeders. Heat was provided using infrared lamps. The number of piglets in each experimental unit were determined by the number of piglets farrowed in each replication. Among the selected sows, 4 (from Commercial section) were vaccinated with Litterguard vaccine and the other 4 (from breeding section) were not vaccinated. . Four of the sows were randomly selected at day six post furrowing from the Breeding section and these four sows did not receive litterguard vaccination. The remaining four sows were also selected randomly at day six post furrowing from Commercial section and these were vaccinated with litterguard vaccine. All the piglets were weighed and initial weight recorded. The initial weights were used to allocate piglets to treatments through stratification. Each sow had its litter divided into two equal groups in which piglets were given a common diet and one of two experimental water treatments: 1) negative control, water containing no additives; and 2) water containing 0.78 g per L citric acid with pH 3.5 and the treatment was replicated 10 times. After initial weight was recorded, piglets were weighed at fortnightly intervals to record weight gain. The acidified solution was mixed on daily basis throughout the experiment. The results show that addition of 0.78g of CA per liter of distilled water had a significant effect on the control of scours as well as piglet growth performance. The study was carried out at the Pig Industry Board in Zimbabwe, Acturus Station from mid-April to end of May 2021.

 

23.  Ethanol trial – in progress

 

24.  Training survey – In progress

 

25.  Value chain analysis – In progress

 

26.  Mukota trial – In progress